Syllabus for the Class X Computer Applications
- Revision of Class IX Syllabus
(i) Introduction to Object Oriented Programming Concepts, (ii) Elementary Concept of Objects and Classes, (iii) Values and Data Types, (iv) Operators in JAVA, (v) Input in JAVA, (vi) Mathematical Library Methods, (vii) Conditional constructs in JAVA, (viii) Iterative constructs in JAVA, Nested for Loops.
- Class as the Basis of all Computation
Objects and Classes
Objects encapsulate state and behavior-numerous examples: member variables, attributes or features, variables define state, member methods, operations/methods/messages/methods define behavior.
Classes as abstractions for sets of objects: class as an objects factory, primitive data types, composite data types, variable declarations for both types, difference between the two types, Objects as instances of a class.
Consider real life examples for explaining the concept of class and object.
- User-Defined Methods
Need of methods, Syntax of methods, Forms of methods, Method definition, Method calling, Method overloading, Declaration of methods,
Ways to define a method, ways to invoke the methods- call by value and call by reference, Object Creation- invoking the methods with respect to use of multiple methods with different names to implement modular programming, using data members and member methods. Actual parameters and formal parameters, Declaration of methods- static and non-static, method prototype/signature, Pure and Impure methods, Pass by value and pass by reference, Returning values from the methods, use of multiple methods and more than one method with the same name(Polymorphism- Method Overloading).
Definition of Constructor, Characteristics, Types of Constructors, Use of Constructors, Constructor overloading etc.
Default constructor, parameterized constructor, constructor overloading, difference between constructor and method.
- Library Classes
Introduction to wrapper classes, Methods of wrapper class and their usage with respect to numeric and character data types. Autoboxing and Unboxing in wrapper classes.
Class as a composite type, distinction between primitive data type and composite data type or class types. Class may be considered as a new data type created by the user, that has its own functionality. The distinction between primitive and composite types should be discussed through examples. Show how classes allow user defined types in programs. All primitive types have corresponding class wrappers. Introduce Autoboxing and Unboxing with their definition and simple examples.
The following methods are to be covered :
int parseInt(Sting s),
long parseLong(Sting s),
float parseFloat(String s),
double parseDouble(String s),
boolean isDigit(char ch),
boolean isLetter(char ch),
boolean isLetterOrDigit(char ch),
boolean isLowerCase(char ch),
boolean isUpperCase(char ch),
boolean isWhitespace(char ch),
char toLowerCase(char ch),
char toUpperCase(char ch),
Access specifiers and its scope and visibility.
Access specifiers- private, protected and public. Visibility rules for private, protected and public access specifiers. Scope of variables, class variables instance variables, argument variables, local variables.
Definition of an array, Types of Arrays, Declaration, Initialization and accepting data of single and double dimensional arrays, Accessing the elements of single dimensional and double dimensional arrays.
Arrays and their uses, sorting techniques- selection sort and bubble sort, Search techniques-linear search and binary search. Array as a composite type, length statement to find the size of the array (sorting and searching techniques using single dimensional array only).
Declaration, initialization, accepting data in a double dimensional array, sum of the elements in row, column and diagonal elements [right and left], display the elements of two-dimensional array in a matrix format.
- String Handling
String class, Methods of String class, Implementation of String class methods, String array.
The following String class methods are to be covered:
String trim( ),
String toLowerCase( ),
String toUpperCase( ),
int length( ),
char charAt( ),
int indexOf(char ch),
int lastIndexOf(char ch),
String concat(String str),
boolean equals(String str),
boolean equalsIgnoreCase(String str),
int compareTo(String str),
int compareToIgnote(String str),
String replace(char oldchar, char newchar),
String substring(int beginIndex),
String substring(int beginIndex, int endIndex),
boolean startsWith(String str),
boolean endsWith(String str),
String valueOf(all types)
Programs based on the above methods, extracting and modifying characters of a string, alphabetical order of the strings in an array [Bubble and Selection Sorting techniques], searching for an string using linear search technique.
This segment of the syllabus is totally practical oriented. The accent is on acquiring basic programming skills quickly and efficiently.
Programming Assignments (Class X)
The students should complete a minimum of 20 laboratory assignments during the whole year to reinforce the concepts studied in class.
Suggested list of Assignments:
The laboratory assignments will form the bulk of the course. Good assignments should have problems which require design, implementation and testing. They should also embody one or more concepts that have been discussed in the theory class. A significant proportion of the time has to be spent in the laboratory. Computing can only be learnt by doing.
The teacher-in-charge should maintain a record of all the assignments done by the student throughout the year and give it due credit at the time of cumulative evaluation at the end of the year.
Some sample problems are given below as examples. The problems are of varying levels of difficulty:
- ) User defined methods
- Programs depicting the concept of pure, impure, static, non-static methods.
- Programs based on overloaded methods.
- Programs involving data members, member methods invoking the methods with respect to the object created.
- ) Constructors
- Programs based on different types of constructors mentioned in the scope of the syllabus.
- Programs/outputs based on constructor overloading.
- ) Library classes
- Outputs based on all the methods mentioned in the scope of the syllabus.
- Programs to check whether a given character is an uppercase/lowercase/digit etc.
- ) Encapsulation
- Questions based on identifying the different variables like local, instance, arguments, private, public, class variables etc.
- ) Arrays
- Programs based on accessing the elements of an array.
- Programs based on sort techniques mentioned in the scope of the syllabus
- Programs based on search techniques mentioned in the scope of the syllabus
- Programs on Double dimensional arrays as given in the scope of the syllabus.
- ) String Handling
- Outputs based on all the string methods mentioned in the scope of the syllabus.
- Programs based on extracting the characters from a given string and manipulating the same.
- Palindrome string, piglatin, alphabetical order of characters, etc.
Important: This list is indicative only. Teachers and students should use their imagination to create innovative and original assignments.